2 edition of Uptake and processing of chloroplast polypeptides found in the catalog.
Uptake and processing of chloroplast polypeptides
Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of Warwick, 1984.
|Statement||by Colin Robinson.|
Anabolism requires the input of energy, which can be described as an "uphill" (energy intake) process. Catabolism is a "downhill" process which energy is released as the organism had used up energy. At certain points in the anabolic pathway, the cell must put more energy into a reaction than is released during catabolism. Iron (Fe) is essential for life because of its role in protein cofactors. Photosynthesis, in particular photosynthetic electron transport, has a very high demand for Fe cofactors. Fe is commonly limiting in the environment, and therefore photosynthetic organisms must acclimate to Fe availability and avoid stress associated with Fe deficiency. In plants, adjustment of metabolism, of Fe.
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A chloroplast protease capable of processing the precursor of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit to the mature size has been purified fold from stromal extracts of pea leaves.
The enzyme has a molecular weight of aboutdaltons, a pH optimum nearand is inhibited by metal-chelators but not by serine- or thiol-protease : Colin Robinson. The small subunit precursor was processed to a molecular weight that was identical with that of the mature pea small subunit.
These results show that leucoplasts, though specialized for fatty acid biosynthesis and not photosynthesis, have a mechanism of protein import similar to that of by: Grossman AR, Bartlett SG, Chua N-H (a) Energy-dependent uptake of cytoplasmically synthesized polypeptides by chloroplasts.
Nature (London) – CrossRef Google Scholar Grossman AR, Bartlett SG, Schmidt GW, Chua N-H (b) Post-translational uptake of cytoplasmically-synthesized proteins by intact chloroplasts in by: 4. Firstly, the biogenesis of both the chloroplast and the mitochondrion requires the activities of two genetic systems, since each of these organelles synthesises a small, but essential, proportion of the organellar by: 4.
Addition of ATP to the uptake mixture in the dark mimics the light stimulation of transport, and it reverses the uncoupler inhibition of transport in the light. These data demonstrate that cytoplasmically synthesized polypeptides are imported into the chloroplast by an energy-dependent by: The process by which nuclear coded polypeptides are assembled into the chloroplast has been reconstituted in vitro 1,2 and involves three sequential events: (a) translation of cytoplasmic RNA; (b) uptake of translation products into the chloroplasts; and (c) sorting and assembly of polypeptides to sites in the envelope, stroma, and thylakoid by: Light stimulates the uptake of polypeptides synthesized in vitro into intact chloroplasts.
The light-stimulated uptake is inhibited by uncouplers, but not by the electron transport inhibitor Cited by: The nature of the CO 2 uptake during steady-state photosynthesis is unknown but the lowK 1/2 (CO 2) values for chloroplasts from low-Ci cells (around μm; Table II) clearly indicate that this process is active and is not simply diffusion that depends on CO 2 fixation by by: A rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)-enriched fraction, isolated by sucrose density gradients, can be treated with micrococcal nuclease to destroy endogenous messages.
When these membranes are added to a wheat germ protein-synthesizing system together with zein mRNA, synthesis and processing of the polypeptides to the mature products takes by: Protein products of both the chloroplast and nuclear genomes are required for the multisubunit complex assembly, these proteins being synthesized and assembled in a stoichiometric manner (Gray.
other chloroplast mRNAs revealed that many genes had altered 3 ⬘ process- ing in mcd3 and mcd4 (less in mcd5), and a few genes were affected in 5 ⬘ processing. The uptake and processing of pLHCP have been studied in vitro and shown to be posttranslational and ATP dependent (I 2, 31).
In vitro translation products of poly(A) RNA can be taken up by isolated chloroplasts, and the processed form of LHCP has then been found associated with a chlorophyll-protein complex (4, 31).
An active ribosome is composed of a small and a large ribosomal subunit. In the bacterium E. coli, the small subunit is composed of 21 different polypeptides and a nucleotide long rRNA molecule, while the large subunit is composed of 33 different polypeptides and two rRNAs, one nucleotides long and the other nucleotides long chloroplast where they assemble into macromolecular complexes.
The transport of these polypeptides into the plastid can be examined in vitro by mixing isolated chloroplasts with pea poly(A) RNA translation prod- ucts.
Following optimization of both translation in the wheat germ system and the conditions during in vitro uptake, we observe the. This chapter discusses proteins of the chloroplast. The mechanisms involved in transport and subsequent processing of cytoplasmically synthesized chloroplast proteins could provide a means by which either the chloroplast or nuclear genome maintains control over the polypeptide composition of the by: 8.
Contents General preface to the series page xi Preface to the sixth edition xiii 1 Importance and role of photosynthesis 1 Ultimate energy source 1 The carbon dioxide cycle 2 EYciency and turnover 4 Spectra 5 Quantum theory 6 Energy units 7 Measurement of photosynthetic irradiance 8 Some techniques used in photosynthesis research 10 2 History and progress of File Size: KB.
The book is recommended to readers seeking an overview on chloroplast biology as well as scientists looking for detailed up-to-date information. Reviews " a comprehensive guide to current research and future potential study of chloroplasts" from ProtoView. The book discusses the parts of a cell and the biochemical processes, such as respiration involving the mitochondria, microbodies or cytosol, or photosynthesis in the chloroplasts.
The text also describes the use of plant cell cultures in biochemistry; the primary cell walls of flowering plants; and the morphology, purification, chemical and Book Edition: 1. A plastome (chloroplast genome) mutant of tobacco, lutescens-1, displays abnormal degradation of the chloroplast-encoded polypeptides which form the core complex of photosystem II (PSII).
Two nuclear- encoded proteins (present in polymorphic forms), which normally function in the water oxidation process of PSII, accumulate as larger size-class polypeptides in mutant thylakoid. Gram-positive bacteria use peptidase-containing ATP-binding cassette transporters (PCATs) to export quorum-sensing and antimicrobial polypeptides; here, the Cited by: Interaction of N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide with the energy conservation systems of the spinach chloroplast.
Biochemistry11 (23), DOI: /bia Yee-Kin Ho, Liu, David R. Saunders, Jui H. Wang. Light dependence of the decay of the proton gradient in broken by: uptake and processing of nutrients excretion of wastes response to environmental stimuli chloroplast = photosynthesis ribosomes.
both organelles contain small quantity of DNA that direct the synthesis of polypeptides produced by the internal ribosomes-both organelles grow and reproduce as semiautonomous organelles. Process of protein transport by the type III secretion system. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Revi – Girard, V.
& Mourez, M. In the developing endosperm of monocotyledonous plants, starch granules are synthesized and deposited within the amyloplast. A soluble stromal fraction was isolated from amyloplasts of immature maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm and analyzed for enzyme activities and polypeptide content.
Specific activities of starch synthase and starch-branching enzyme (SBE), but Cited by: B. the uptake of extracellular molecules by endocytosis and the transport of molecules from the trans Golgi network to the lysosomes.
transport from the ER to the Golgi. the process of secretion. Sulfate uptake by plants. Sulfate is taken up by the roots that have high affinity. The maximal sulfate uptake rate is generally already reached at sulfate levels of mM and lower.
The uptake of sulfate by the roots and its transport to the shoot is strictly controlled and it appears to be one of the primary regulatory sites of sulfur assimilation. Book Condition: This is an ex-library book and may have the usual library/used-book markings book has hardback covers.
In good all round condition. In good all round condition. Please note the Image in this listing is a stock photo and may not match the covers of the actual itemCited by: Protein targeting or protein sorting is the biological mechanism by which proteins are transported to their appropriate destinations in the cell or outside it.
Proteins can be targeted to the inner space of an organelle, different intracellular membranes, plasma membrane, or to exterior of the cell via secretion.
The chloroplast can act as an environmental sensor, communicating with the cell during biogenesis and operation to change the expression of thousands of proteins. This process, termed retrograde signaling, regulates expression in response to developmental cues and stresses that affect photosynthesis and yield.
Recent advances have identified many signals and pathways—including carotenoid Cited by: Start studying Chapter 6- Photosynthesis & the Chloroplast.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. REVIEW Phylogenomic analysis of the Chlamydomonas genome unmasks proteins potentially involved in photosynthetic function and regulation Arthur R. Grossman • Steven J.
Karpowicz • Mark Heinnickel • David Dewez • Blaise Hamel • Rachel Dent • Krishna K. Niyogi • Xenie Johnson • Jean Alric • Francis-Andre´ Wollman • Huiying Li • Sabeeha S.
Merchant. Several of the involved factors directly bind to translating ribosomes for the early processing of emerging nascent polypeptides and the translocation of ribosome nascent chain complexes to target membranes. In plant cells, protein synthesis also occurs in chloroplasts serving the expression of a relatively small set of 60– protein-coding Author: Fabian Ries, Claudia Herkt, Felix Willmund.
The role of the chloroplast in algal inorganic carbon acquisition is reviewed. Unicellular green algae possess the ability to grow photoautotrophically at very low CO 2 concentrations.
The presence of a CO 2-concentrating system that elevates the CO 2 level within the cell can account for the algae's ability to reduce photorespiration and grow under these by: Photosynthesis is an active area of research in which many exciting developments have taken place in the last few years.
This book gives an overview of the present understanding of all areas of molecular processes of photosynthesis. It is based on the international literature available in the summer of and much unpublished material. The new material contained in this book, together with a 5/5(1). The process of photosynthesis is commonly written as: 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O → C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2.
This means that the reactants, six carbon dioxide molecules and six water molecules, are converted by light energy captured by chlorophyll (implied by the arrow) into a sugar molecule and six oxygen molecules, the products. This process is known as cyclical photophosphorylation. Explain photophosphorylation in terms of chemiosmosis.
The process of photophosphorylation takes light energy and converts it to chemical energy in phosphate bonds of ATP molecules. Light strikes on an antenna pigment in a thylakoid within a chloroplast in Photosystem 2. Immediately download the Chloroplast summary, chapter-by-chapter analysis, book notes, essays, quotes, character descriptions, lesson plans, and more - everything you need for studying or teaching Chloroplast.
In C4 plants this polypeptide is found in chloroplasts from bundle sheath cells but it is not present in chloroplasts from mesophyll cells. We have shown that the absence of the small subunit from corn mesophyll chloroplasts is not due to a defect in uptake and processing.
1 Chloroplast and mitochondria are double membrane bounded 2 They both came into existing by the process of endocytosis of bacteria 3 They both have their own nucleus. Phosphorylation of thylakoid membrane proteins in the chloroplast of wild-type and mutant strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardi has been studied in vivo and in vitro.
Intact cells or purified membranes were labeled with [32P]orthophosphate or [gammaP]ATP, respectively, and the presence of phosphorylated polypeptides was detected by. Progress 10/01/09 to 06/30/12 Outputs OUTPUTS: Plants grow photosynthetically because of the light harvesting and carbon fixing reactions that take place within the chloroplasts located within their cells.
Like all organelles, chloroplasts require a unique set of protein for their function, some of which can be synthesized semi-autonomously within the plastid. TARGETING SEQUENCES.
Most precursor proteins are larger than their corresponding plastid-localized forms. The N-terminal transit peptide that is cleaved off the precursor protein upon entry into chloroplasts usually contains stromal-targeting information that is necessary and sufficient for transport of precursors across the two envelope membranes (Keegstra et al., ; de Boer and.
Structure of Chloroplasts Photosynthesis takes place within organelles called chloroplasts. Most chloroplasts are disc shaped They are usually between 2 - 10 µm Each chloroplast has a double membrane; an outer and an inner membrane Between the double membrane, there is an inner membrane space The outer membrane is permeable to many small ions The inner.